※twitterでUCニュース配信はじめました。ユーザー名 a77a フォロー自由です


Towards paper batteries

The Paper Battery Company was formed in August 2008 to manufacture and sell flexible, scalable energy storage sheets, or "paper batteries" that will make energy storage ubiquitous by integrating it into existing structures. Leveraging existing supercapacitor technology, this "green product" is a printed nanocomposite device that will enable energy densities 6X higher than current commercial supercapacitors, approaching that of batteries, but with a much longer cycle life and higher power. These thin, scalable devices aim to provide a fast recharge, long cycle life replacement for batteries in certain applications, and can be built into the roof or door panels to save space and weight in electric vehicles or into building structures for networked, massive energy storage on the grid.

The company's innovation is the architecture of a structural sheet that becomes a power plane. The architecture is a massively parallel array of independent cells and has stress management and fault-tolerance built into its design. The technology is agnostic to either supercapacitor, lithium battery or hybrid storage technology.

By combining weight bearing and energy storage in one structural sheet, a systemic approach to energy management is possible, with power accessible at the point of use throughout the accessible surface area of the device. For the first time, energy management stakeholders include architects, designers, mechanical or civil engineers and system integrators, who can specify and buy a structural material that provides local power access. The multi-layered sheets can achieve twice the energy density of commercial supercapacitors.

The company has filed its own patents on the PowerWrapper™ technology platform and also holds worldwide exclusive rights to the broad background patent filed by Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.

The PowerWrapper™ is made by print-forming complex, fully functional components like electrodes and a porous separator in situ, using techniques compatible with high volume roll to roll printing methods. However, unlike most other printed devices, the PowerWrapper™ is not built around any starting web or paper sheet. The entire integrated device is print-formed from particles, resulting in unprecedented design control to tune the mechanical and storage properties of the sheet to the desired application. Designed to be 'cut to fit,' the unit device can be shaped and sized specifically to the power storage and shape desired, including patterned holes. These processes thus enable addressable power cells or entire power planes to be built based on OEM specifications.

If the Company is successful, the sheets would be the first flexible and scalable thin sheet-like electrostatic storage product available today.

Source and top image: The Paper Battery Company

For more read : Energy Harvesting and Storage for Electronic Devices 2010-2020

and attend Energy Harvesting & Storage and Wireless Networks & RTLS Europe 2011




* 10の論点で蓄電池の将来を予測 *

┃ 『2015年に蓄電池業界はこうなる』

┃ 発行:日経BPクリーンテック研究所 / 調査:テクノアソシエーツ

2015年,電池メーカーはどこが勝ち残るか,電池コストはどこまで下がるか,電池の構造や材料は何が主流になるか・・・。皆が知りたいこうした疑問に対し,本レポートはある答えを導きます。自動車の電動化や電力のスマート化とともに新規参入が相次ぎ,蓄電池の市場動向,技術動向はますます混沌としてきました。特に今後,影響力のありそうな中国や韓国の電池メーカーに関しては一般に情報が少なく,先行きが見通しにくい状況です。本レポートは独自の取材と視点により,韓国LG Chemや中国BYDを含むキー・プレーヤ8社を重点的に分析,各社の戦略を基に将来の電池業界の行方を解き明かします。
***** 3月31日までのお申し込みなら,≪早割特価≫が適用されお得です! *****

・韓国メーカー(LG Chem,Samsungグループ)

・「LA Autoshow」にみる米国製EV/PHEV

5.電池設計の要となるBMS(battery management system)技術

事例:Tesla Motors社

米Linear Technology
米Maxim Integrated Products
米Texas Instruments




■発行:日経クリーンテック研究所 ■調査:テクノアソシエーツ
■A4変型判・約180ページ ■2011年2月23日発行
■定 価:241,500円(税込)


2015年に蓄電池業界はこうなる 10の論点で蓄電池の将来を予測


■主催:日経BPクリーンテック研究所 テクノアソシエーツ共催
■会場:テクノアソシエーツ セミナールーム
(東京都港区赤坂2-17-22 赤坂ツインタワー東館17F)



■キャパシタの高エネルギー密度化・大容量化 800円(税込)
■電気2重層を駆逐するか,Liイオン・キャパシタ 500円(税込)
■自動車用途を目指した大電流に耐える低抵抗のキャパシタ 800円(税込)

▼▼▼ サービスの詳細・記事のご購入はこちら ▼▼▼

┃ ◆◇◆ Tech-On!デジタルライブラリ 【第2弾!】 ◆◇◆
┃ ┏━┏━┏━┏━┏━┓
┃ ┃次┃世┃代┃電┃池┃の厳選記事が27本!
┃ ┗━┗━┗━┗━┗━┛
┃ 日経BP社の電子・機械系技術誌の専門記者,次世代電池分野の第一線で
┃ 活躍する専門家らが解説。読みたい分だけPDFファイルで購入できる

┃ ├─◎ 記事PDFを簡単ダウンロード!
┃ ├──◎ 読みたい記事だけ選んで買える
┃ ├───◎ 500円(税込み)から気軽に買える
┃ └────◎ お得なまとめ買いも。
┃ サービスの詳細・記事のご購入はこちら
┃ ⇒

◎「次世代電池 記事セレクション」記事の例

■多様化する燃料電池車の水素貯蔵技術 500円(税込)
■電池の大型市場としての電気自動車の可能性 800円(税込)
■クルマの王座奪還へ,電動車両に託す米国 500円(税込)

■電気自動車/ハイブリッド車向けLiイオン2次電池の市場動向 800円(税込)
■Liイオン2次電池正極材料の新しい可能性 800円(税込)
■車載Liイオン電池,安全性確保に試行錯誤 500円(税込)
■安全で超寿命の新型2次電池「SCiB」 800円(税込)

■ポストLiイオン電池,新型リチウム-空気電池の開発 800円(税込)
■電池の性能を左右する次世代の負極材料 800円(税込)
■ポストLiイオンを狙い,日米で電池開発が加速 800円(税込)

■キャパシタの高エネルギー密度化・大容量化 800円(税込)
■電気2重層を駆逐するか,Liイオン・キャパシタ 500円(税込)
■自動車用途を目指した大電流に耐える低抵抗のキャパシタ 800円(税込)






Developing Locomotive-sized Supercapacitors

Railpower locomotive offers improved energy efficiency of up to 60% fuel savings and 80% reduction in NOx emissions. Photo courtesy of Railpower.
Harry Valentine considers the advantages of a supercapacitor-powered 'slug' unit. By Harry Valentine

Open Access Article Originally Published: March 03, 2011
There is much ongoing research being aimed at developing super capacitor energy storage devices for automotive transportation applications. Most of this research is aimed at developing super capacitors for use in transportation applications where power-to-weight ratios are quite substantial. As transportation vehicles increase in magnitude, the power-to-weight ratio decreases significantly.

There are a few ready markets for cost competitive, large-scale super capacitor energy storage devices that may be applied to such applications as railway traction operations. While hybrid and battery powered industrial and shunting locomotive depend on lead-acid battery technologies, these batteries do not deliver a surge of power and can only be recharged over extended time durations. The addition of super capacitors could greatly enhance the performance of battery-powered locomotives, except that technology of such magnitude is currently unavailable.

Research into super capacitors has indicated that bi-metallic oxides can store large amounts of energy. For applications such as railway shunting and railway commuter train services, banks of mega-sized super capacitors would need to store energy in low-cost bi-metallic oxides. One such oxide ore actually occurs quite naturally in the bedrock of Madagascar. Its technical name is ILMENITE (iron titanate FeTiO3) and will store considerably fewer watt-hours per kilogram as barium titanate.

Another naturally occurring iron-based mineral is the bi-metallic oxide known as chromite (FeCr2O4). Like ilmenite, it may also have possible application in large-scale super capacitors intended for severe service applications. The molecule barium chromate (BaCrO4) is produced in large quantities at competitive prices across China and India. It is also a bi-metallic oxide capable of holding an electrostatic charge in a large-scale, commercial transportation application.

The engine of a family car that weighs 2500-lb may produce an output of some 75-Hp to 100-Hp output. Engines of 150-Hp to 200-Hp have powered buses that weigh some 25,000-lb. A locomotive of 2500-Hp may pull a passenger train that weighs some 750,000-lb. An engine of some 24,000-Hp may propel a container ship of some 25,000-metric tons deadweight (55,000,000-lbs). As the size of the transportation technology increases, the power-to-weight ratio decreases.

In large-scale transportation applications, the power-to-weight ratio is a fraction of that of a private automobile. There may actually be a market for a super capacitor that can store enough energy to move a train over a short distance. In railway shunting service, the energy stored in a super capacitor way be sufficient to move a train from a standing stop to maximum shunting speed. As the train reaches shunting speed, the batteries would blend in to keep the train traveling at constant speed.

In railway freight operations, there exists a traction technology called a “slug” unit. It is essentially the chassis and traction technology of a diesel-electric locomotive that receives electrical power from a companion diesel-electric locomotive. Several American railways use ballasted slug units to provide additional traction to pull heavy freight trains. The slug unit may be the ideal candidate for large-scale super capacitor technology that stores energy in low-cost, naturally occurring bi-metallic oxides.

The weight of the energy storage units can replace the ballast in the slug units and assist to provide addition traction. A tough, rugged energy storage technology that can operate in extreme cold and extreme heat would assist several types of railway motive requirements. It would also need to quickly dump massive amounts of power into traction motors to start a heavy train and be capable of rapid recharge as the train uses electro-dynamic braking to reduce speed.

A rechargeable railway slug unit could be assigned to service assisting diesel-electric locomotive to pull heavy commuter trains. A single diesel-electric unit and a companion rechargeable slug unit may replace a compliment of 2 x diesel-electric units on a multi-stop 12-coach commuter train. In service, the rechargeable slug unit would absorb energy as the train slows to a stop. That energy may provide 60% to 65% of the energy needed to accelerate the train. During the service stop, the slug unit would also receive additional energy from the companion diesel locomotive.

A rechargeable slug unit may also operate as a companion to an electric locomotive, absorbing deceleration energy and recharging during service stops. Electric locomotives cause severe power swings on the distribution grid. During acceleration, the electric locomotive could draw minimal energy from the power grid as the stored energy in the rechargeable slug unit provides energy to accelerate the train. Power from the grid would gently blend in as the train reaches its cruising speed.

A large rechargeable slug locomotive equipped with 6-axles and a driving cab may be assigned to a commuter train of 7 x bi-level coaches. The locomotive may weigh some 350,000-lb (158,000-kg) and store energy in some 25,000-kg of ilmenite from the mines of Madagascar. It may store some 80 to 100-Watt-hours per kilogram (w-h/kg) of energy, or 2000 to 2500 kW-hr of power, enough to propel the train for a distance of up to 30-miles at a speed of 40-miles power hour. Should the train make a service stop every few miles, it may partially recharge at the stations during the stops.


While much research is focused on developing a super capacitor technology capable of propelling an automobile for some 100-miles or more, there is possible opportunity to develop mega-scale super capacitor technology for railway traction applications. Such technology could store electrostatic energy using low-cost, naturally occurring ores and minerals. While such storage technology may not provide the energy storage densities of a barium titanate super capacitor, they may do the required tasks in a variety of railway traction applications.




2011/03/03 21:33狩集 浩志=日経エレクトロニクス 次代の製品開発の技術課題を解決する加工技術

[クリックすると拡大した画像が開きます] FDKは,「第2回 国際二次電池展」(2011年3月2~4日,東京ビッグサイト)にハイブリッド車(HEV)向けLiイオン・キャパシタ・モジュールを参考出品した。10万回以上の充放電サイクル特性を備えるほか,大電流(高レート)での充放電時でも電圧で充放電状態を把握できることから,HEVに向くとする。






Just One Sector – Fuel Efficiency Pure Plays

John Petersen

In 1789 Benjamin Franklin wrote "in this world nothing is certain but death and taxes." Today he probably would have written "in this world nothing is certain but death, taxes and rising oil prices." There's no escaping the misery, but astute investors who take the time to understand the fundamental trends can profit as the misery unfolds. For the short term, I'm convinced the biggest opportunities will be in fuel efficiency technologies for cars and light trucks.

After 20 years of complacent stagnation, the US started to get serious about light-duty vehicle fuel efficiency in 2005 and has made solid progress with improvements in the 14% to 18% range. The rate of change will ramp rapidly over the next five years as aggressive new CAFE standards that were adopted in April 2010 take effect. The following graph provides an at a glance summary of new light-duty vehicle fuel efficiency over the last 30 years and new fuel efficiency standards for the next five years.

In their 2010 adopting release for the new CAFE rules, the NHTSA and EPA identified three fuel efficiency technologies that would play crucial roles in automakers' efforts to meet the new standards (page 484):

Efficiency Technology Fuel Savings

Gasoline direct fuel injection

Dual clutch transmissions

Stop-start idle elimination

The usual diversified group of first tier manufacturers of automobiles and component systems will control two of the three technologies. Only one, stop-start idle elimination, offers a pure-play opportunity with a certain outcome.

Stop-start is the most sensible fuel efficiency technology you can imagine – turn off the engine while the car is stopped in traffic. While the concept is simple, implementation is a beast because drivers typically want their sound systems, climate control, lights and other accessories to keep working when the engine is off. Therefore, the key enabling technology for start-stop systems is a better starter battery.

Traditionally, a battery had to start a car once during a normal trip. With a stop-start system, however, the battery has to start the engine an average of once per mile and carry critical accessory loads while the engine is off. For a one-minute engine-off cycle, the accessories will demand ten times as much energy as the starter. For a 15-mile commute with one engine-off cycle per mile, the battery will have to deliver 165 times the energy that it would in a car without stop-start. The battery load is immense, but an optimized stop-start system can slash fuel consumption in city driving by up to 15% and do it for an incremental capital investment in the $400 to $800 range.

The normal flooded lead-acid batteries we've used for decades simply can't stand up to the demands of stop-start systems. That reality has forced automakers to rely on cut-out systems that disable the stop-start function when the battery's state of charge falls below a minimum level, and won't re-enable the stop-start function until the battery recovers an acceptable state of charge. The result is stop-start systems that don't function anywhere near peak efficiency. To minimize problems, automakers are currently using dual battery systems and upgrading to absorbed glass mat, or AGM, batteries.

In recognition of the shortcomings of flooded batteries, the leading battery manufacturers are building new AGM battery production capacity at a blistering pace. In 2007, Johnson Controls (JCI), the world's biggest battery manufacturer, had global production capacity for 400,000 AGM batteries per year. Their announced expansion projects will boost that capacity to 11.2 million AGM batteries per year by 2014 and further expansions in the US are being discussed. Exide Technologies (XIDE) is also on an expansion spree that will boost its AGM battery capacity from 500,000 units in 2009 to 3.5 million units in 2013. On a worldwide basis, Lux Research forecasts that AGM battery demand will soar by 800% over the next five years, from three million units in 2010 to 27 million units in 2015. As they substitute higher margin AGM batteries for lower margin flooded batteries, the revenues and margins of leading battery manufacturers including JCI, Exide and to a lesser extent Enersys (ENS) will soar. Their stock prices will follow suit.

While AGM batteries are currently the best available technology for stop-start systems, they are far from ideal because their ability to recover an optimal state of charge deteriorates rapidly as the battery ages. Using simulation protocols from BMW and Ford, researchers have learned that the time required for an AGM battery to recover from an engine-off event increases from 50 to 60 seconds with a new battery to 4 or 5 minutes with a battery that's been in service for six months. The bottom line is automakers need a better solution than AGM batteries. Until a better solution comes along, however, the AGM battery will reign supreme as the battery of choice for the stop-start market.

The two principal contenders for "better solution" honors are:

A multi-component system from Continental AG and Maxwell Technologies (MXWL) that combines an AGM battery, a small supercapacitor module and associated control electronics in a system that eliminates the voltage drops and black screens that commonly occur when the starter engages at the end of an engine-off cycle; and
The third generation lead-carbon battery from Axion Power International (AXPW.OB) that replaces the lead-based negative electrode in a conventional AGM battery with a carbon electrode assembly that boosts cycle life by 400% and provides consistent charge recovery times of about 35 seconds through four years of simulated use.
The Maxwell - Continental system is available now and was recently selected by PSA Peugeot Citroën for use in Citroën C4 and C5 diesels featuring PSA's e-HDi second generation micro hybrid system. With an estimated three-year value in the $50 million range, this design win should provide a significant boost for Maxwell's top-line revenue. Despite its advantages, however, the Maxwell - Continental system is not an ideal solution because the supercapacitor can slow but it can't stop the deterioration of the AGM battery it's paired with. So over time, vehicles equipped with the Maxwell-Continental system will suffer the same kind of performance degradation that all other stop-start systems exhibit.

The most promising solution to the challenges of stop-start, the PbC® battery from Axion, is in the final development stages and won't be ready for a large-scale commercial rollout until 2012. Axion is currently installing a second-generation fabrication line for their serially patented carbon electrode assemblies and potential customers should begin validation testing on the new fabrication processes and equipment soon. Once its potential customers validate the fabrication process, the last major step will be to build additional electrode fabrication capacity so that Axion can manufacture PbC batteries on its own AGM battery line and sell electrode assemblies to other AGM manufacturers. Since the PbC electrodes are designed to work as plug-and-play replacements for traditional lead-based electrodes, Axion should be uniquely positioned to leverage existing AGM battery manufacturing capacity while giving other battery manufacturers the opportunity to sell a premium product to their existing customers.

While the PbC battery is still a development stage technology and Axion is just barely out of the nano-cap range with a $60 million market capitalization, its roster of disclosed industry relationships is extraordinary. Axion has longstanding relationships with both East Penn Manufacturing and Exide, the second and third largest AGM battery manufacturers in North America; it has a service contract to develop a battery management system for Norfolk Southern (NS) which wants to retrofit a portion of its 3,500 unit locomotive fleet with hybrid drive; and the PbC battery has demonstrated exceptional performance during 18 months of testing by BMW, the industry leader in stop-start with over a million EfficientDynamics vehicles on the road today. In over 30 years as a small company securities lawyer, I've never seen another company that was able to generate a comparable level of interest and involvement from the giants in its industry.

The energy storage sector offers a wide range of fuel efficiency pure plays. The following table provides summary data on key financial (in millions) and market metrics that I consider important. While JCI is not technically an energy storage pure play because of its diversified operations in auto parts and building efficiency, I've included it in this list because 14.6% of its revenues and 52.5% its earnings are derived from battery manufacturing operations.

While I closely follow the energy storage and vehicle electrification sectors and am convinced that every manufacturer who can bring a cost-effective product to market will have more demand than it can handle, these five companies have the clearest paths to market beating growth over the next five years and are my favorites for that reason. JCI, Enersys, Exide and Maxwell have been stellar performers since December 31, 2008 with market crushing gains of 126% to 264%. Axion has been the laggard of the group, losing 39% of its market value it raised new capital in a brutal market and worked to complete the development of its promising PbC technology and start climbing out of the valley of death. For the next few years, I expect the entire group to outperform the market by a wide margin because the die is already cast.

Fuel efficiency has been a hot topic in the automotive world for the last five years and new regulations in the US and EU will provide a massive impetus for immediate change. Increasing political turmoil in oil producing regions can only add to the sense of urgency. There is a wide variety of potential long-term solutions, but short-term solutions to immediate problems are very limited. For the next five years, stop-start will be at or near the top of the list.

Disclosure: Author is a former director of Axion Power International (AXPW.OB) and holds a substantial long position in its common stock.

Just One Sector – Fuel Efficiency Pure Plays was posted on

Posted by John Petersen on February 23, 2011 05:43 AM | Just One Sector – Fuel Efficiency Pure Plays


Shenzhen Capchem Technology 2010 Net Profit Up 56%

Wednesday 2011-02-23 15:56
February 23 – Shenzhen Capchem Technology (300037) recorded a 56.2 percent year-on-year rise in 2010 net profit to 93.93 million yuan, reports, citing a company filing.

Sales revenue rose 49.7 percent year-on-year to 477 million yuan while earnings per share (EPS) surged 17.33 percent to 0.88 yuan.

The company capitalized on the recovery of the economy and booming demand for its downstream products, leading to rapid rise in sales of aluminum electrolysis capacitor chemical products and lithium ion batteries.

The company’s new business of solid macromolecule capacitor chemical products and super capacitor electrolytes also pushed sales up.


Novel Energy Storage Device: porous silicon ultracapacitor with ...

Nanotechnology News
Current supercapacitor technology is too expensive, costing about 0.5c/F ($1.28/kJ) ... A supercapacitor is a galvanic cell, where the aluminum (Al) current ... ---




図1 主要8社の自動車用電池生産量

 第2に、“コスト”である。BMS(battery management system)を含む自動車用電池システムの目標値は「20円/Wh」である。これを実現すれば普通乗用車のEV(20kWh搭載)で現在のハイブリッド車(HEV)並みとなる200万円前後の価格設定が可能になる。汎用の「18650型」はBMSを含まない電池セルのみで、1994年の300円/Whから2008年には22円/Whと、年率で17%のコストダウンを実現してきた。低コスト化で先行する電池メーカーは、BMS込みの自動車用電池で、2010年の時点で50円/Whを達成していると見られる。2015年には「20円/Wh」も射程に入り、これは「18650型」と同じ17%のペースのコストダウンとなる(図2)。これを達成することにより、2015年でLiイオン電池の大型蓄電池システムはPb(鉛)蓄電池と同等のコストとなる。

図2 主要各社の自動車用電池のコスト推移



(テクノアソシエーツ 朝倉博史)



図1 開発したスーパーキャパシタの外観
東北大学 原子分子材料科学高等研究機構の陳明偉教授の研究グループは、3次元ナノポーラス金属/酸化物ハイブリッド電極を用いた高性能電気化学キャパシタの開発に成功したことを発表した。同研究成果は2011年2月20日(英国時間)、英国科学雑誌「Nature Nanotechnology」のオンライン速報版に掲載された。

電気二重層キャパシタ(もしくはスーパーキャパシタ)は、高出力と長寿命を併せ持ち、ボータブル機器からハイブリッド電気自動車まで幅広く応用されるようになってきている。スーパーキャパシタは高電力供給元ではあるが、それらのエネルギー密度は従来の電池や多くのアプリケーションで必要とされる値には届いておらず、例えば、従来のスーパーキャパシタの貯蔵エネルギー密度は約100F/cm3(もしくは150F/g)程度であった。これは、マンガン酸化物(MnO2)のような擬似容量金属酸化物をスーパーキャパシタ中の電極として使うことが有効である一方、MnO2の電気伝導性の悪さ(10-5-10-6S cm-1)がネックとなり、十分な性能を発揮できなかったためである。


図2 ナノポーラス金属/酸化物(Au/MnO2)ハイブリッド電極材料の。(a)透過電子顕微鏡像、(b)走査型透過電子顕微鏡像、(c)スーパーキャパシタの構成図



陳 明偉(チン ミンウェイ)
〒980-8577 宮城県仙台市青葉区片平2-1-1
Tel:022-217-5992 Fax:022-217-5955